IEST History

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF IEST
(originally compiled by William Silver II)



1952
Monroe Seligman, President of Tenney Engineering, begins formation of a society for the environmental equipment industry.

1953
Founding of the Environmental Equipment Institute (EEI), the first parent society of the Institute of Environmental Sciences.

1954
First EEI Technical Meeting held on Environmental Engineering Applications. This is considered to be the forerunner of the Annual Technical Meeting (ATM).

Science Section of EEI formed for advancement of the science of environmental testing. Steering Committee members: Roger J. Amorosi, Arthur Billet, Harold C. Jones, Henry F. Sander, and William Vandal.

1955
EEI meeting held in Chicago includes first exhibition by equipment manufacturers.

1956
Institute of Environmental Engineers (IEE) formed as a separate corporation from the Science Section of EEI. Henry F. Sander serves as first president of IEE.

IEE and Society of Environmental Engineers (SEE) in California begin consideration of a merger.

1957
First Technical Meeting of IEE held in Chicago. First Proceedings published (30 papers).

1958
Second Technical Meeting of IEE held in New York. IEE Headquarters addressed established in Chicago. Formal IEE/SEE merger negotiations begin.

First issue of the Journal of Environmental Engineering published.

1959
IEE and SEE merge to form Institute of Environmental Sciences, with seven chapters and 500 members.

First IES Annual Technical Meeting held in Chicago. This is the official birth date of the Institute.

Harold C. Jones serves as first IES President, Henry F. Sander as its first Executive Secretary.

Technical contributions to National Standards begin:
  • First MIL-STD-810 to review.
  • Air Force Handbook on Environmental Engineering
  • Secretariat, American Standards Association, Environmental Terminology.
Membership grades are established, and the first IES Fellows are selected.

The former Journal of Environmental Engineering becomes the Journal of Environmental Sciences, the official publication of the IES.

1960
Ten active chapters include Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Mid-Atlantic, New York Metropolitan, Northern California, San Diego, Southern Ohio, and Southern Tier.

Technical publication sales initiated.

1961
1,000 attendees at ATM61.

Membership reaches 1,100.

1962
ATM62 is a three-day conference with 24 sessions, 72 papers, 950 attendees, and 55 exhibitors.

Technical sessions include Human Factors; Environmental Equipment; Environmental Techniques; Design and Analysis; Shock and Vibration; Thermal; Theoretical Nuclear Radiation; Materials; Space Facilities; Space Simulation; and Acoustics.
Honorary Fellow designation initiated. Elias Klein and V.G.P. Weake named as first Honorary Fellows.
Sixteen active chapters.

1963
First tutorial activity in Vibration Theory and Shock Theory held at ATM63.
MIL-STD-810 reviewed and submitted to U.S. Air Force.

IES appoints delegate to International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC), TC 50 Committee.

IES Space Vacuum Simulation Committee holds International Symposium on Solar Simulation.

IES defines Solar Constant.

IES, American Society for Testing and Mate-rials (ASTM), and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) combine to establish Space Simulation Conference series.

1964
IES and The Aerospace Corporation begin the Aerospace Testing Conference.

IES becomes cooperating sponsor of 10th Symposium on Reliability and Quality Control. IES begins involvement with Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS).

Study of IES organization by consulting firm of Cresap, McCormick and Paget authorized. Study recommends establishing Regions with Vice Presidents, and a more compact Executive Board.

1965
President’s Advisory Board established.

President Clarence F. Sanders reports that implementation of Cresap report has resulted in improved operations.

Membership reaches 1,900.

1966
ATM Operations Manual issued.
Irwin Vigness Award for work in shock established as first IES Technical Award.

Outstanding Chapter award initiated.

1967
Thomas W.H. Miller becomes Executive Secretary.

Ad Hoc Committee on Modified Organization presents a plan for four Regions with Vice Presidents and a newly organized Executive Board.
Membership numbers 2,700.

1968
Sustaining Sponsor program initiated.
Journal and other technical publications indexed and microfilmed.

Edward O. Williams named first recipient of Irwin Vigness Award.

1969
ATM69 attracts 2,200 attendees, 140 papers, 63 exhibitors.

New Executive Board organization installed with four Regional Vice Presidents and a Technical Vice President in addition to President and other officers.

Twenty-seven chapters in existence.

1970
IES celebrates accomplishments of its members in the previous year’s manned mission to the moon, and dedicates its energies to problems of earth pollution.

Presidential Task Force develops revised Constitution and Bylaws, assisted by San Fernando Valley recommendations. Included is provision for a Council of National Director.

1971
IES encounters financial difficulties. Betty Peterson assumes duties as Acting Executive Secretary.

IES focuses energy on Environmental Quality activities. Contacts established with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

IES invited to briefing on formation of EPA.

H.C. Wohlers, IES Presidential Advisor on Environmental Quality, represents IES at international meeting on forming a World Environment and Resources Council (WERC). Fifty professional societies and several foreign embassies were represented.

1972
IES President Arthur M. Dallon reports membership reduction to 1,700, primarily due to national reduction in aerospace activities.

Betty Peterson appointed Executive Secretary. Title was later changed to Executive Director.

Revised Technical Division structure initiated under Technical Vice President Richard Nichols, with Divisions in Ecological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Technical Management, Standards and Practices, and Training and Education.

Monroe Seligman Award initiated in honor of the founder of the Institute. Fred Hermann is first recipient.

American Association for Contamination Control (A2C2) and IES begin discussion regarding merger of the two societies.

1973
Physical Sciences Division becomes Test and Technology Applications Division.

President Frank W. Hallstein announces that a major portion of A2C2 membership has merged with IES.

New Executive Board includes contamination control representatives for the first time. J. William Battis Jr., A2C2 Past President, and Dr. David Simonsen, Liaison Vice President, are seated on IES Board.

1974
Former A2C2 chapters are urged to join IES as chapters. Other A2C2 members are assigned to existing IES chapters in their area.

IES becomes a member of newly formed International Committee of Contamination Control Societies (ICCCS), and is represented at London Symposium by Dr. David Simonsen.

1975
IES President Victor D. Marone announces formation of Environmental/Reliability Projects Groups to work with Department of Defense Joint Logistics Command Coordinating Group in Improving Systems Reliability. This effort evolves into the Product Reliability Division.

IES applies major effort to revision of MIL-STD-781.

1976
IES becomes affiliate of American Association for Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Industrial Contamination Control Division and Bioscience Division merge to form Bioscience/Contamination Control Division.

IES President Russell T. (Tom) Hollingsworth announces issuance of Recommended Practices (RPs) on Contamination Control.

1977
Technical Editors Awards initiated for outstanding technical papers.

Strong campaign started for increasing membership.

1978
IES and Director of Material Specifications and Standards Office (DMSSO) join in an effort to improve Environmental Specifications and Standards.

Initial planning begins for first conference on Environmental Stress Screening of Electronic Hardware (ESSEH).

IES President Robert Geminder initiates Long-Range Planning process.
IES hosts outstanding 4th ICCCS in Washington, D.C.

1979
First ESSEH Conference and Workshop held in San Jose, California.

One-year membership made part of ATM registration.

Job descriptions written for Executive Board.

Targets set at 2,850 members and 70 percent cash reserve by 1985.

Computer requirements for IES Headquarters defined.

President is Robert N. Hancock.

1980
Major efforts applied to generating Recommended Practices and working with government agencies on voluntary Standards.

1981
Efforts begin to incorporate chapters and provide liability insurance at the chapter level.

Technical Department Policy Manual issued.

IES experiences active meeting schedule, including:
  • ESSEH 81
  • Shock and Vibration Symposium (with major IES support)
  • RAMS 82
  • Writing Workshop (Feb. 82)
  • Random Vibration (March 82)
  • ICCCS 82–Tokyo (Sept. 82)
  • Aerospace Seminar (Oct. 82)
1982
IES President August L. Lena announces increase in membership to 2,160 members, and growth in fiscal strength, primarily due to active conference series.

Active Contamination Control (CC) Division effort on RPs draws 160 participants to Mid-year Meeting.

Design, Test and Evaluation (DT&E) Division holds pre-release review of MIL-STD-810D.

1983
ATM83 Keynote Session incorporates Technical Division reports for first time.

1984
IES President Gabriel C. Danch announces successful ATM in Orlando, Florida, with increased emphasis on tutorials, and 120 exhibit booths.

Major RP efforts continue, primarily on contamination control issues.

Associative contacts with other societies investigated.

Membership and financial growth continue to be strong.

1985
IES President Henry J. Caruso reports:
  • Membership more than 2,600 and growing rapidly.
  • Seventy-five companies are Sustaining Sponsors.
  • Publications have become a major operation.
  • Technical Conference base is expanding at national and chapter levels.
  • ATM85 (Las Vegas) most successful to date.
IES President David A. Bond reports the purchase of IES Headquarters building in Mount Prospect, Illinois (Northwest suburban area of Chicago).

IES considers formation of an educational foundation.

All chapters are incorporated with revised charters.

1986
Betty Peterson retires as Executive Director, with Honorary Fellow status conferred at ATM86.
IES President Joseph J. Popolo announces appointment of Janet A. Ehmann as Executive Director.

1987
Executive Board encourages national elections.

IES President William Silver II announces major activities of Institute:
  • Tailoring in DoD Acquisition.
  • ESS Procedures and Guidelines.
  • Development of CC Sciences and RPs.
  • Reliability Growth Science.
  • Government Specifications and Standards (e.g., MIL-STD-781 and -810, FED-STD-209).
  • Major joint ventures (RAMS, ICCCS, Space Simulation, Aerospace, new partner-ships).
  • Continuing work of Technical Divisions.
  • Dissemination of knowledge through regional and chapter conferences.

1988
IES holds first conference on Reliability Growth.

IES hosts ICCCS 88 in Los Angeles.

IES President Donald L. Tolliver announces achievement of 501(c)(3) nonprofit tax status.

1989
ATM89 (Anaheim, Calif.) schedules seven full days of technical and administrative activities, and is most successful ATM to date with 2,761 attendees.

IES actively pursues new joint society ventures with Parenteral Drug Association, American Association of Aerosol Research, Business Council on Indoor Air Quality, etc. IES logo changed to reflect high-tech image.

Journal of Environmental Sciences changed to Journal of the IES to promote IES name recognition.

Membership exceeds 4,200.

Brazil Affiliate Chapter officially recognized, and presented with charter by IES President Harold D. Fitch. This is first affiliated group outside North America.

Survey of IES members helps chart course for future.


1990
IES Foundation for the Advancement of the Environmental Sciences established, with Richard A. Matthews as its first President, and Foundation Board members David A. Bond, Charles F. Conrad, Gabriel Danch, Harold D. Fitch, Robert Geminder, William Silver II, Dr. Clement A. Tatro, and Stephen L. Yellin.

Edward A. Szymkowiak serves as IES President.

New Mexico Chapter chartered.

IES begins desktop publishing.

IES officially becomes member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the voluntary standardization system in the United States.

1991
Anne Marie Dixon elected first woman President of IES.

IES and SEMATECH sponsor joint tutorial on advanced semiconductor manufacturing.
India admitted as an IES Chapter Affiliate.
ATM91 (San Diego) records outstanding attendance at technical programs and exposition.

1992
Richard A. Matthews installed as President at Annual Technical Meeting in Nashville, Tennessee.

IES Working Group 100, chaired by David C. Swinehart, completes its revision of Federal Standard 209.

IES revises composition of Executive Board along lines of tasks instead of geography.

Communications, National Director, Education, and a second Technical Vice President replace Region Vice Presidents.

1993
IES named Secretariat for ISO Technical Committee 209, “Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments,” which will write an international standards for cleanrooms.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appoints IES Administrator of the US TAG (Technical Advisory Group) to ISO Technical Committee 209.

Jeffrey H. Marshall installed as President at Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Seminars on Minienvironments and Biocontamination are given for first time at ATM.

Ninth Conference on Nuclear Reactor Loose Parts Monitoring is held in conjunction with ATM.

IES inaugurates short course series on Federal Standard 209E at five sites throughout the country.

A new multilevel Sustaining Sponsor program is established.

A new Mission Statement for the organization is adopted:
The IES is an international professional organization dedicated to enhancing process and product quality through the advancement of controlled environment technologies. The IES establishes and maintains standards, recommended practices, educational programs, and communication forums.

1994
Robert N. Newton installed as President at 40th Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition in Chicago.

Sales of IES publications breaks all previous records.

Handbook for Data Acquisition and Analysis published as first Design, Test, and Evaluation Recommended Practice.

1995
A new technical committee, the Environmental Code and Definitions Committee, is formed.

Milena Krasich installed as President at 41st Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition in Anaheim, California. She is the first woman to be named a Fellow of IEST.

Executive Director Janet A. Ehmann observes 25 years with the Institute.

Institute establishes an electronic mail (E-mail) address: InstEnvSci@aol.com.

1996
Institute forms an Education Advisory Committee and begins a series of short courses in various locations.

Stephen L. Yellin installed as President at ATM in Orlando, Florida.

Working with an outside consultant, the Executive Board establishes a Long-Range Strategic Plan for the Institute.

The computer system at Headquarters is replaced and updated.

The Institute’s Home Page on the World Wide Web is established at Http://www.instenvsci.org.

1997
Reflecting a renewed commitment of service to the technical community, IES becomes Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST).

John B. Goodman installed as President at ATM in Los Angeles, California.

Headquarters undergoes interior remodeling to improve efficiency, meet evolving staff requirements, and enhance its value for sale.

IEST sells Headquarters building in Mount Prospect to support strategic goals of financial stability.

IEST Headquarters announces the retirement of Executive Director, Janet A. Ehmann, and appointment of Julie Kendrick as Executive Director, effective November 1.

1998
The Journal of the Institute of Environmental Sciences officially changed to the Journal of the IEST.

George G. Olear II installed as President at ATM in Phoenix, Arizona. IEST hosts 14th ICCCS as part of ATM.

The IEST web site redesigned and posted at www.iest.org. New electronic mail (E-mail) addresses established for Headquarters (iest@iest.org) and staff.

First Fall Conference, held in Chicago, schedules short courses and working groups from all divisions.

1999
Jeffry Schutt is installed as president of IEST at the 1999 ATM in Ontario, California.

ISO Technical Committee 209, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments, publishes its first standard, ISO 14644-1: Classification of air cleanliness.

The name of the IEST annual meeting and exposition is changed to ESTECH, beginning with ESTECH 2000. The acronym represents Environmental Sciences TECHnology.

Financial measures, including zero-based budgeting, a dues increase to $100, a line of credit, and diversification of investments, are put into place to stabilize IEST financial position.

2000
Robert Spector is installed as president of IEST at ESTECH 2000, the 46th Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition, in Providence, Rhode Island.

IEST is accredited as an ANSI-approved, standards-writing organization.

IEST Working Group 100 recommends to the U.S. General Services Administration that it discontinue the use and maintenance of Federal Standard 209.

IEST initiates the first of its annual membership campaigns for member recruitment and retention.

The Journal of the IEST becomes a quarterly publication.

Communication with IEST members is enhanced by quarterly electronic newsletters: IEST in Action from the Technical Department, and HQLink from the Executive Director.

2001
Mitchell Mazer is installed as president of IEST at ESTECH 2001, the 47th Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition, in Phoenix, Arizona.

Two new awards are established to recognize those who have provided substantial contributions to the IEST Standards and Practices program. The awards are named for Robert L. Mielke (Contamination Control) and the late Edward A. Szymkowiak (Design, Test, and Evaluation/Product Reliability), and are presented for the first time at ESTECH 2001.

Terrorist attacks on the U.S. cause reduction in staff and in activities in order to offset financial effect of restrictions on travel and participation.

The General Services Administration discontinues FED-STD-209E in favor of ISO 14644-1.

2002
Michael A. (Mick) Roy is installed as president of IEST at ESTECH 2002, the 48th Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition, in Anaheim, California.

IEST hosts the 16th ICCCS in conjunction with the annual meeting.

After more than 35 years in the same building in Mt. Prospect, Illinois, IEST relocates its Headquarters to Rolling Meadows, Illinois.

The Space Simulation Award is renamed in honor of John Campbell, IEST Past President, Fellow, and recognized leader in the field.

The Journal of the IEST becomes an annual publication, with the first annual edition published in September, 2002. The Journal editorial board is revamped.

IEST produces its first Policy Book, a governance document to accompany its bylaws and articles of incorporation.

2003
IEST celebrates the 50th anniversary of its founding with the theme, “50 Years of Technical Excellence.” ESTECH 2003 is held in Phoenix, Arizona.

Robert L. (Andy) Anderson is installed as president of IEST at ESTECH 2003, the 49th annual technical meeting and exposition, in Phoenix, Arizona.

ISO 14644-1, 14644-2, and 14644-4 are accepted as American National Standards.
IEST’s bylaws undergo a major revision. The International Advisory Council is established in place of the Council of National Directors.

2004
Jan Eudy is installed as president of IEST at ESTECH 2004, the 50th annual technical meeting and exposition, in Las Vegas, Nevada.

The 2004 annual Journal of the IEST is available in CD-ROM format.

2005
IEST offers its first online course: Cleanroom Operations, taught by Jan Eudy.

Stanley Poynor is recognized as incoming IEST President at ESTECH 2005 in Schaumburg, Illinois.

IEST website is redesigned.

IEST is accepted by ANSI as a founding member of the US TAG to the new ISO/TC 229 Nanotechnologies.

ANSI appoints IEST as the Administrator of the US TAG to ISO/TC 142 Cleaning Equipment for Air and Other Gases.

A student scholarship is established in memory of Eugene Borson, and the Park Espenschade Fund is revitalized as a scholarship.

The Journal of the IEST is an exclusively online publication, with 10 years of back issues archived and available with subscription.

2006
Gordon Ely becomes President of IEST.

ESTECH 2006, the 52nd annual technical meeting and exposition, is held in Phoenix, Arizona.

A student scholarship for published paper in the Journal is established in memory of Ro-bert N. Hancock.

A second Education Vice President is added to the Executive Board.

2007
Fredric Fey becomes President of IEST.

ESTECH 2007 is held in a resort setting in Bloomingdale, Illinois.

IEST Headquarters office moves to Arlington Heights, Illinois.

IEST establishes an online database.

IEST presents a newly updated website that is integrated with the database for real-time order processing.

IEST offers ISO/TC 209 document in elec-tronic form.

Julie Kendrick retires as Executive Director.

2008
Charles W. Berndt becomes President of IEST.

Roberta Burrows named as new Executive Director.

With new Headquarters leadership, the Executive Board focuses on cost-cutting measures to rescue IEST from financial crisis.

ESTECH 2008 is held in Bloomingdale, Illinois for the second consecutive year.

The Journal of the IEST celebrates 50 years of continuous publication.

2009
Michael Rataj becomes President of IEST.

ESTECH 2009 is held at the Chicago Marriott Schaumburg in Schaumburg, Illinois.

IEST offers IEST Recommended Practices and ISO National Standards in electronic form and as licensed files for networked servers.

The Executive Board position of Communications Vice President is eliminated.

IEST hosts ISO/TC 209 Technical Committee and Working Group meetings in Washington DC.

2010
R. Vijayakumar becomes President of IEST.

After several years of Chicago venues to cut overhead costs, ESTECH returns to traveling status and one of the most successful ESTECH meetings in recent years is held in Reno, Nevada.

Despite the impact of a global recession, the past two years of intense efforts by the Board and Headquarters staff enable IEST financial reserves to return to respectable levels.

The first IEST Women in Engineering award is presented to Anne Marie Dixon (Contami-nation Control) and Milena Krasich (Product Reliability).

The 2010 Space Simulation Conference is dedicated to the memory of John Campbell, one of the founders of the conference.

The e-mail address for IEST is changed to information@iest.org.

2011
Chris Peterson becomes President of IEST.

IEST launches a major planning and devel-opment effort to increase member retention and involvement and improve recruitment efforts.

The IEST Campus concepts are introduced, providing a tailored experience for IEST's web audience.

2012
Carl Moran becomes President of IEST, but resigns in mid-term due to changes in profession. President-elect Greg Winn assumes the role of President and continues in the role of ESTECH General Chair.

IEST offices move to a larger space on the top floor of their current location in Arlington Heights, Illinois, USA. The space includes a new Institute Training Center to provide topical education courses for up to 16 students.

 

2013
Greg Winn begins his elected term as IEST President, although he had served by appointment for the previous six months.

 

Sequestration leads to military cutbacks in travel and expense and greatly impacts the Design, Test, and Evaluation education, conference, and standards development programs as military presenters and attendees are unable to secure permission to remain involved.

 

IEST publishes its first nanotechnology standard to provide contamination control design principles to the burgeoning field of nanotechnology.

 

President Greg Winn initiates a renewed focus on the IEST Strategic Plan. Executive Director Roberta Burrows and Fiscal Vice President John Weaver lead the Board in the adoption of the IEST Policy Statement: Board-Designated Reserve, General Operating, and Project Funds with target levels to avoid the type of draw-downs that occurred earlier in the last decade.

 

To meet the continued unemployment issues facing the nation, the IEST Career Center is redeveloped to provide a broader outreach of job opportunities for members.

 

2014
Roger Diener becomes President of IEST.

 

The Executive Board adopts the IEST Code of Conduct, which embodies the ethical responsibilities IEST stakeholders have to each other, to the profession, and to IEST when engaged in IEST activities, participating in IEST events, or acting on behalf of IEST.

 

The position of IAC Vice President is formally changed to Vice President of Planning, with a focus on the development and maintenance of the Strategic Plan. A Strategic Planning session at ESTECH results in a draft revision of the Mission, Vision, and Goals of the organization by encouraging further global outreach.

 

To note their substantial contributions to IEST’s standards development program, the Working Group Chairs and Executive Board approve the recognition of voting Working Group members within all newly developed IEST Recommended Practices.

 

2015

Shawn Windley becomes President of IEST.

The Board adopts four new long-range goals through a new Strategic Plan geared to in-crease awareness of IEST expertise and leadership in the global arena and promote engagement of IEST members.

As Secretariat of ISO Technical Committee 209, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments, IEST is pleased to announce the long-awaited publication of the revised ISO 14644-1 and -2 cornerstone cleanroom standards.

The IEST Standards and Practices Progarm Policy for Working Groups is overhauled to reflect current practice, allow voting partici-pation through online attendance, and im-prove correlation with new ANSI procedural practices.

Executive Director Roberta Burrows is elect-ed Secretary of IEST international liaison ICCCS.

2016
Wei Sun begins his elected term as IEST President.

IEST Education Vice Presidents Rick Meyer and Nick Clickinbeard develop the IEST Learning Path Certificate Program, to deliver essential foundational training in IEST’s var-ious disciplines. A new Learning Management System (LMS) is incorporated into IEST’s online services to provide fully traceable training.

The IEST Bookstore transitions to a robust online hosting service to provide sought-after availability of 24/7 downloads of IEST Recommended Practices and nationally adopted ISO Standards. In addition, users can view redlines of past standards to better understand revisions and assist in compliance efforts.




VENUES OF ANNUAL TECHNICAL MEETINGS


1955 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois (EEI)
1957 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois (IEE)
1958 ............................................ New York, New York (IEE)
1959 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois (IES)
1960 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1961 ............................................ Washington, DC
1962 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
1963 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1964 ............................................ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1965 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
1966 ............................................ San Diego, California
1967 ............................................ Washington, DC
1968 ............................................ St. Louis, Missouri
1969 ............................................ Anaheim, California
1970 ............................................ Boston, Massachusetts
1971 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1972 ............................................ New York, New York
1973 ............................................ Anaheim, California
1974 ............................................ Washington, DC
1975 ............................................ Anaheim, California
1976 ............................................ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1977 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1978 ............................................ Ft. Worth, Texas
1979 ............................................ Seattle, Washington
1980 ............................................ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1981 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1982 ............................................ Atlanta, Georgia
1983 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1984 ............................................ Orlando, Florida
1985 ............................................ Las Vegas, Nevada
1986 ............................................ Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas
1987 ............................................ San Jose, California
1988 ............................................ King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
1989 ............................................ Anaheim, California
1990 ............................................ New Orleans, Louisiana
1991 ............................................ San Diego, California
1992 ............................................ Nashville, Tennessee
1993 ............................................ Las Vegas, Nevada
1994 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
1995 ............................................ Anaheim, California
1996 ............................................ Orlando, Florida
1997 ............................................ Los Angeles, California
1998 ............................................ Phoenix, Arizona
1999 ............................................ Ontario, California
2000 ............................................ Providence, Rhode Island
2001 ............................................ Phoenix, Arizona
2002 ............................................ Anaheim, California
2003 ............................................ Phoenix, Arizona
2004 ............................................ Las Vegas, Nevada
2005 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
2006 ............................................ Phoenix, Arizona
2007 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
2008 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
2009 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
2010 ............................................ Reno, Nevada
2011 ............................................ Chicago, Illinois
2012 ............................................ Orlando, Florida
2013 ............................................ San Diego, California
2014 ............................................ San Antonio, Texas
2015 ............................................ Danvers, Massachusetts
2016 ............................................ Glendale, Arizona
2017 ............................................ Louisville, Kentucky